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Experimental and numerical study on geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) and non-homogeneous mechanical properties of the ferrite phase in dual phase steels

J. Kadkhodapour, S. Schmauder, D. Raabe, S. Ziaei-Rad, U. Weber, M. Calcagnotto

Acta Materialia, Volume 59, Issue 11, June 2011, Pages 4387-4394



The microstructure of dual phase steels can be compared with a composite composed of a matrix of ferrite reinforced by small islands of martensite. This assumption has been used in several attempts to model the mechanical properties of dual phase steels. However, recent measurements show that the properties of the ferrite phase change with distance from the martensite grains. These measurements showed that the grains of the ferrite phase are harder in the vicinity of martensite grains. As a consequence of this local hardening effect, the ferrite phase has to be considered as an inhomogeneous matrix in modeling dual phase steels. This experiment inspired the idea that local hardening is caused by geometrically necessary dislocations. The idea is investigated experimentally and numerically in the present analysis, which for the first time leads to good agreement with experimental observations of the mechanical stress–strain behavior.


Dual phase steels; Nano hardness test; Geometrically necessary dislocations; Local hardening; Micromechanical model


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