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Redesign an aircraft windshield to improve its mechanical resistance against simultaneous bird impacts

M. Rezaei, B. Arezoo and S. Ziaei-Rad

International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 184, February 2024, 104811



This paper deals with the renewable energy that can be harvested as electrical voltage due to the vibrations of an axially moving composite nanoshell conveying nanofluid. The significance of the study and its main innovation is the investigation of the possibility of yielding electrical energy caused by natural mechanical vibrations in a smart dynamic composite nanostructure, which can have potential applications in the nano industry. To this end, oscillations of nanocomposite interacting with the internal nanofluids are investigated under both non-periodic and the harmonic excitations of an external vortex fluid flow colliding with the outer layer, as a natural phenomenon. The considered composite nanoshell consists of three integrated layers of piezoelectric, magnetorheological elastomer, and carbon nanotube. As a theoretical methodology, using the Navier-Stokes equations and energy method, the governing coupled mechanical–electrical equations of dynamic composite nanoshells are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory applying nonlocal-piezo-elasticity theory utilizing the van der Pol equation for the external vortex shedding flow. The vortex fluid flow leads to the appearance of the added mass and damping terms in the motion equations. The effects of velocities of moving nanocomposite, passing internal nanofluid, and external vortex fluid, the effects of nano-scale structure and aspect ratio, the effect of applied magnetic field intensity on the smart middle layer, the internal and external fluid densities effects (gas/liquid), and the effect of electrical resistive load on the frequency response and the output voltage amplitude of the dynamic nanosystem are also studied. As one of the significant obtained results, it is revealed that the output voltage due to the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the nanosystem will significantly increase as the densities of both internal fluid flow and external vortex fluid flow decrease. In addition, the extractable voltage can be increased or decreased by controlling the intensity of the magnetic field through its effect on the magnetorheological layer.



A. Bird impact; B. Aircraft windshield; C. Smooth particle hydrodynamics; D. Finite element analysis


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